More thoughts on the CSM show and how it affects possible presentation of my work.

Here are some thoughts that I had after the CSM Show which I wrote a post about here.

But it made quite an impression on me from the point of view of how I could display work and what it was about as a Show, not just as individual pieces.

So I decide just to post these points  so hopefully I can think about them again!!!

  • Altermodern
  • viewer/ participant relationship
  • disrupting space between painting culture drawing  digital film………all mixed up
  • colour
  • light hearted .
  • critical of conventional relationship with art
  • installation
  • like a market that you stroll through and browse.
  • not tired at the end
  • enjoyable
  • part of it
  • show felt as a whole show of creativity not necessarily individuals
  • something to do with the space itself
  • used the space really well and felt bedded in.
  • possibly critical/ political  but nothing that really struck me as such …
  • more about conventions of art and playing around colour and plastic?

Small Worlds exhibition, workshops for people with dementia and Sian Macfarlane.

Small Worlds:  exhibition curated by Deborah Robinson at The New Art Gallery Walsall looks at the micro and macro of local and global environment and so is interesting from the pov of Walsall as a community with very mixed ethnicities.

It is a really varied show with some engaging work and some exquisite drawing and photography but this post is not about the show.

Last year, a 12 month placement at NAG I set up a short outreach programme for people with dementia thought the Dementia Cafes in and around Walsall. Myself and artist Ruth Turnbull visited two groups in and I organised a visit to the Garman Ryan permanent collection for a group from Walsall Centre.

Now I’ve been asked to develop a short project specifically to respond to the Small Worlds Exhibition, again working with the Dementia Cafes in Walsall.

It is particularly exciting to be introducing people to contemporary work in a setting they are not used to.

The layout and geography of the building will be challenging from a sensory point of view… lots of reflections on the floor that can be mistaken for pools of water for example.

But it should be enjoyable for the families, I hope and encourage access to the gallery for proper who may not have the confidence to visit otherwise.

Whilst I was visiting I looked at this We are illuminated by Sian Macfarlane. Her blog for the project is here

I loved this small exhibition, curated by Zoe Lippett, and the film was something of a surprise because the artist uses the same techniques of layering and dissolve in her film, as I have been doing in my video.

It works well for her as the film is very much about reminiscence, synchronicity, reveal and illumination.

I’m still not sure I want to use the same technique as I want something rawer and more confusing….

Good to see though and again it has built my confidence to see something projected so large, in a gallery space, which is technically( and conceptually) similar to my work……..

I’ve just looked for some images of this artists work and in doing so found this link… her coincidences emerge and what is interesting  is that i have links to this place also….!

Oxford Brookes BA Show

15th May 2015:

I realise now that there is a gap of a few weeks where I was researching film and working on the videos, going to the Oxford Brookes Show here and Lumen.

Things were hotting up work-wise, there were challenges at home and I was feeling not too bright.

These are the posts from then. 

This just shows the work that struck me at the Brookes Show.

It was very polished, presentation wise as always.

Claire met an old student of hers from MK Foundation who mentioned that they show their work before writing their dissertation….on the part-time course anyway… Odd really….

It was interesting to see some of the work I’d seen earlier at Ovada but developed further for the show.

There was a small but impressive selection of video work.

Below  there is a screen showing work from different points of view.. looking at itself I seem to remember.

Quite a bit of ‘materials’ work, smell, spices etc which I have now seen elsewhere too.

A sort of digital Anish Kapoor piece with Oval projection that looks 3D and some work with what I assume is some interactive 3D digital mapping on the squares and rectangles which was coded a you watched to change the interaction.

Cool.

Adrian Pawley had a hand in this I expect.

There was also a really raw video of an autobiographical diary piece projected in the ‘cinema’ are.

Very rough, personal and poignant.

I’ve got rid of the catalogue sadly so can’t name the artists but it’ll be on the site here.

Just realised why it was so quiet at the beginning.

Everyone must’ve buggered of to hear Will Gompertz ( a coup for Alison Honour!)

and I’m sure I saw Paloma Faith there too…….

 

Central St Martins Degree Show 2015

Here are some images of the work in the show that caught my eye. My phone ran out of charge though so I have missed some of the work I did also find interesting.  Generally, the show was very different from recent shows, I felt.

Hardly any straightforward  painting/ drawing…

In fact there was a lot of colour and objects displayed in association with other objects and materials..

There was evidence of a bit of Ryan Gander goes Debra Delmar Corporation  with a bit of Kapwani Kiwanga and Isabelle Cornaro thrown in…..

BTW … NOTE TO SELF>>> RYAN G has made some altered playing cards!!!

Selling at 40 quid a pack! I’ll have a closer look…

Anyway, back to the degree show.. there was a lot of video incorporated in to other work  often as a sort os semi-installation/sculpture. But not a lot of coding/ programming ‘digital’ work that I could see apart from a video game…

In fact the lines between all disciplines were distinctly blurred, I felt… despite the catalogue describing the pathways for each student…

I don’t remember this in the past… and you had to pay for the catalogue and there were essays in it so it was real Art Publication…

I realised on Friday as I was driving to the station to pick Andrea up that it all reminded me of the show Altermodern at the Tate all those years ago  (2009) based on Nicholas Bourriaud’s Relational Aesthetics… ANOTHER NOTE TO SELF…. must read this again….

The works that particularly interested me were:

Eleanor Turnbull: Sea Front ( moving image) and Chalk Circle ( performance).. because there were some similarities between these works and things i have made in the past…although when I spoke to the artist it turned out that her reasons for making her work were very different from mine…

That’s interesting in itself…

The others I really liked are here but unfortunately I can’t find the artists cards or their names in the catalogue so will add later..

This one;

 IMG_1929

interested me and it had projections from both sides through several layers on one side of ? muslin type fabric? and a reflection from a mirror on the other end reflected onto the wall… of the same image? can’t remember..but the ideas were interesting by Mikako Mitani Memory Overlap

Is the title a reference to coding/ programming?

The others were :

IMG_1898IMG_1899

Rachel C Kremer ‘Common Ground’ MA Photography.

4 videos of different locations UK and further afield exploring boundaries and ownership and delineation of territory..

It reminded me of some of the video sketches I’d done of walking in London and Prenteg but not really pursued.

We had good chat about geography and location and roaming and so on and she told nm about a conference at CSM on Location and Site ,Sensingsite  on Thursday which would be fab to go to but I am working and there’s a Rail Strike anyway..

However its a brilliant link to a useful site for research… lots of references.Very helpful .

This work was also fascinating by another MA Photography student:

IMG_1902

 I was given a boarding card ( can’t find it now!!) and entered the capsule of  a ‘plane’. The video concerned various references to being lost and searching ( including Screen recorder images… again!) clever but clear and well executed, performative interactive… the whole bag! and as the artist said…’ there’s still a little bit of photography in there’… the video…again useful references for me and I left feeling that despite living in the sticks that my efforts to’ keep in the loop’, finger on the pulse and  and ‘ride the Zeitgeist’ or whatever the phrase is now… that it is paying off to some extent….

 Excellent show though.

 Thoroughly enjoyed it and bumped into Jean Stockwell as well so that was great to catch up and discuss the work with someone…

 Nice work with the Arduino, Jean !

Reading Room Feedback from Group Crit.

 Below are roughly edited notes from the group crit on Tuesday 26.5.15

I was really pleased with the comments regarding the layering and how it works but I still have misgivings that it’s a bit of a naff way to show layering of time.

I hope that the unclear narrative means it is less line… that is what I want to show time and something which is non linear but layered in more than a past/ present future way..

Not that’s necessarily fits directly with the subject matter.

I think that I am thinking about the co-existence of different forms of communication in different times and the same place… and in different places at the same time…

After reading Walter B  and thinking about the letterpress/ print and its relationship to the internet and so on.

There are some core issues around certain areas of the material but i think I want these to be part of the main content but not the main focus of the work which will be the co-existance of this building and its history in the present day landscape.. both geographical and ? digital..

I am more and more interested in the psychogeographical side… especially as it comes to be related to the Pyschogeography of a digital space…

I will have to focus down at some point and after this crib went to get books from the library at CSM to think about things for our written research project.

I was interested in the comments below which seemed to fall into the following categories.

Speed: I was pleased the way the slowness worked…. hopefully to hightlight comparative speed in other areas… This was picked up on so that was good.

Layering:This seemed to work well for this group thought i still have misgivings at using it so obviously… maybe i can do other things to disrupt it in some way.

 Sound:This seemed to be effective and I DO like the ideas of layering this,.

I think the sound layering works very different from the visual layering and can be more confusing but there for disorienting which may be a good thing and also less ‘Romantic’ as away of disrupting time.

 I will look and listen to the site Jonathan mentioned.

 I agree with him absolutely that the sound needs to be more subtle… it was before I started faffing but was concerned that some ofd the main topics mayn’t be heard clearly.. maybe I should just allow ears to pick up the narrative as they wish , as I do the visual narrative.

 Symbols: I am sorry that the Sports Direct cards are too loaded with meaning  for Jonathan but understand what he means… I did worry about that but wanted to use them as a direct reference to the Building.

 I will try to alter them in some way but keep the reference… and not load the meaning more in the wrong direction… that could take an audience off down the wrong track.

 Also I was surprised how the individual objects were examined by the audience… I guess I am just used to seeing such objects in village halls and so on but others are not and they take on ‘extra special meanings’ particularly because of the ‘long- takes’.

 I just intended them to give a strong sense of place…… and with it  a possible dis jointing of time depending on their personal experiences… To an audience from a village near here they would not seem unusual but to a metropolitan city dweller in any city… they will be seen differently.

Some of my thoughts weren’t that obvious through he film … or weren’t picked up… the Hyper and layered mediation and the way of using the camera noise and movements to remove a sense of immediacy… though actually I think Yvonne did pic up on this. and said that it .”adds to sense of “this is a moment” and we are viewing peices but not priviledged to know what every detail means…it’s better because leaves room for interpretation” or at least I hope i understood this correctly.

So pleased to think about from the Crit. and I am so glad to be back in the group for this kind of thing.

I will post again soon about my next steps which are constantly in my mind but not making their way out very easily into work…..

I seem to have been reading and looking at so much different art that as Claire said… ‘ I need to go and lie down in a darkened room for a few weeks’ to let it all mesh together…Anyway

and some good ideas for watching films … which is fun research!!!

Quotes below:

I was trying to unravel your message, which in itself held my attention. I love the layering which was not at all chaotic, very calm. Internet juxtaposed with an old village hall…. the imagery was quite beautiful. I found the politics hard to place.
 The sound works well with the images, really transmitting various emotions.

At the start, the newspaper page flipping has an agitation about it, the noises of the people shuffling in, the political commentary becoming distant, removed from the very personal…it takes one in to reveal but not
something compelling and the layering begins to work. loved the imagery

Me too, I found the layering engaging, transparent qualities
 I found the narrative open or complext and difficult to grasp. 2) so myown sense of it was about the loacl/national and individual/group with the personal history juxtoposed against the national background of the election. 3) I enjoyed the pace of the video – it slowed me down

 I am listening on headphones here, so very aware of how the sound is also almost in layers or at least using left and right channels
 I haven’t tried it yet without the layering… but I was worried that it would be chaotic and confued cos theres lots going on.

The sound is so crisp

Did anyone notice the noise and jumpiness of the camera and if so any thoughts?
 but that adds to sense of “this is a moment” and we are viewing peices but not priviledged to know what every detail means…it’s better because leaves room for interpretation

some kind of threat to these places, village halls that is. It seemed kind of precious in your video… the serious tone of politics and giga something communities were a contrast?
 yes that is a good way to describe the sound – ‘crisp’ — at times however it felt that some sound was too dominant and a more subtle approach would help
 no the visuals didn’t look jumpy to me
 Was that intended?
Yes Jumpy and noise were intended
 yes the rode mic is very good, it is the editing where I think you can be more subtle
 the transition, audio and video based, were really smooth going and easy for me to move with
Yep I think it was better before i started messing with it…
 Levels wise.
yes adjusting the levels is just like adjusting the curves in an image, you have almost endless variations to play with
 It’s all new to me the sound thing and although I have headphones I can here stuff outside in the garden and get confused by it!!
Sound is a whole other dimension… so important for me

Jonathan Kearney:  about sound, there is a very technical but useful concept to think about here…
 diegetic sound and non-diegetic sound

Jonathan Kearney: you are beginning to play with this in this film but there is more you can explore
easiest definition here http://www.filmsound.org/terminology/diegetic.htm

.
Jonathan Kearney: so the sound of the turning newspaper page is diegetic, the sound of the radio discussion in non-diegetic

 that is especially relevant with some of the other things `i am working on but not fit to be shown yet,…
 The radio was on in the background as I made the screen recording.. I didn’t realise it would be recorded!Ha! but useful
Jonathan Kearney: it is a basic audio technique for film but it is also something you can play with conceptually as well

Yvonne Opalinski: Both tell a story…that’s how I see sound as a subtext that supports or subverts the visual
great way of putting it, ‘support or subvert the visuals
Thats really useful Yvonne as a way of describing how I want to move in and out of the supporting role of the sound in other pieces..
Jonathan Kearney: there is a huge amount artists can should learn about sound from film making, there is a lot of practice based experience that we can draw on

: I am watching a lot of movies 🙂
What do you all think of the playing cards if anything…?
Jason Murray: Nicholas Roag films would be a good reference for sound

Jonathan Kearney: Rhiannon, that rest of that website that I linked to is useful http://filmsound.org/ — terrible design to the site but full of useful stuff

Jason Murray: Roeg/ Walkabout and Performance
 Its good working in the dark to start with but …

Jonathan Kearney: I was going to ask about the playing cards, I read them in one way due to the manufacturers name on the back (Sports Direct .com is a large sports shop with warehouse style shops and a huge website — they are known for cheap prices but exploitative employment practices)so I couldn’t really see beyond that
There was a pub like element with the Fosters glasses and playing cards…?!
They are the type used by the Reading Room for their Whist drives but the link you mentioned seemed relevant to me…. hopefully thinkgs may be clearer as i work through the material…

Yvonne Opalinski: Didn’t know that at all, which puts a completely different spin on the meaning. Before, it was a symbol of static life rather than active life, but now it could be representational of those who have been exploited, this is how they pass their days… sort of chewed up and spit out… it’s all they have left

 Jason Murray: I agree, Sarah, I thought Working Mans Clubs in the North of England
 Yes It is a place that is neither pub nor village hall but was a Reading room in the past for newspapers to be provided for the estate workers by local land owner and benefactor..
Yvonne Opalinski: Also the glass was empty of water even though the flowers appeared “fresh”, I saw that right away since I’m always changing the water for any fresh cut flowers we have, but again it’s meaning was alluring
 I have been ‘altering ‘ the cards as on my blog for maybe an ‘alternative’ game of whist in the Reading Room..
Jonathan Kearney: maybe the flowers were plastic?!
yes, but again, such a contrast from the English village hall with its table cloths and flowers etc.
Yes Plastic…
 Jonathan Kearney: Rhiannon I think the altered cards on your blog have some potential, but maybe you need to consider the reverse side and create that side as well?

Jason Murray: Rhiannon, watch the opening graphics for the animation Monkey Dust
Sarah Robinson: Oh! Interesting, Rhiannon. I have never known such a place. Things start to fall into place with this knowledge

Jason Murray: Major rhetoric/ Blair rhetoric

one of the things I want to do is open the venue as a ‘reading room again for a day…
 Peter Mansell: ah but reading what?!

The Reading Room

I’m making this post in a hurry as we have the second of our Group Skype Chats this afternoon and I hope to get some feedback on work I have been doing since the end of February.

I’ve been collecting material mainly in the form of photographs, sound recordings and video of a building in a nearby village in Northamptonshire called the Reading Room.

I have been visiting the RR and meeting the people from the village who use it as a community venue for Whist Drives, coffee mornings and other social events.

At the moment I am not going to post any more information as I hope that the members of my group will just look at the footage I will show them on Vimeo and tell me what they see without the overlay of any more context than this..

Apart, of course, from the fact that they know my past work and maybe familiar with my proposal.

I am protecting the videos I am making in this project with a Password as they are very experimental and I am not sure yet of the direction.

I am new to video and so want to see how the shots and techniques of transition etc work …

What context other bring to the work as well. This video is a basic introduction to the work.

I have been working on others but have decided not to show them to my colleagues yet as I have lots of decisions to make and techniques to improve… I’m don’t usually work like this  so this is a new approach.

I’ve been looking at Theresa Hak Kyung Cha and Stan Douglas again as they use dissolve and overlay very effectively as a technique despite it often being a bit ‘cliched’ I feel….?

I will write more on this post after the Group Chat about how I want the work at the Reading Room to progress and how I would like to to fit into the interim exhibition in July, if possible.

Below are some images of some ‘playing cards’ I am making for possible use in the Reading Room at some stage….

The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction – Walter Benjamin: Notes

I read this essay and I know everyone says it is crucial reading but I didn’t really believe them…until I read it!

It was published in 1936

80 years ago!

I don’t really know how to analyse it at the moment but thought it would be best just to jot down some key quotes that hit me when I read it…

Especially as I am working with film now …..to some extent ….or so it seems.

Here is also a video with Susan Buck- Morse talking about the work… very succinctly and  she makes the points which are probably most relevant for the work I am doing at the moment…

I guess I will have to think very hard about how much, if at all I agree with him but some of the discussion in the Afterword especially, I can’t ignore considering the work I am making.

I think I could read it again and again and still find new quotes… the whole of it is quotable!

Here are some links to to other summaries one from Yale and  blog of a Prelim Study group which looks as if it maybe useful if not from a known academic source.

So here goes:

It starts with this quote from Paul Valery

“Our fine arts were developed, their types and uses were established, in times very different from the present, by men whose power of action upon things was insignificant in comparison with ours. But the amazing growth of our techniques, the adaptability and precision they have attained, the ideas and habits they are creating, make it a certainty that profound changes are impending in the ancient craft of The Beautiful. In all the arts there is a physical component which can no longer be considered or treated as it used to be, which cannot remain unaffected by our modern knowledge and power. For the last twenty years neither matter nor space nor time has been what it was from time immemorial. We must expect great innovations to transform the entire technique of the arts, thereby affecting artistic invention itself and perhaps even bringing about an amazing change in our very notion of art.”

—Paul Valery, Pieces sur L’art, Le Conquete de l’ubiquite

II

 Page 3

In principle, the work of art has always been reproducible. What man has made, man has always been able to make again. Such copying was also done by pupils as an artistic exercise, by Masters in order to give works wider circulation, ultimately by anyone seeking to make money. Technological reproductions of the work of art is something else, something that has been practised intermittently throughout history, at widely separated intervals there with growing intensity. The Greeks had only two processes for reproducing works of art is technologically: casting and embossing……………. It was wood engraving that made graphic arts technologically reproducible for the first time; drawings could be reproduced long before printing did the same for the word. The huge changes that printing (the technological reproducibility of writing) brought about in literature are well known. However, of the phenomenon   that we are considering on the scale of history here they are merely a particular instance – Though of course particularly important one. Wood engraving is joined in the course of the Middle Ages by copperplate engraving and etching, then in the early 19th century by the geography.

Page 4                                                               (SPEED)

 With lithography, reproductive technology reaches a radically new stage……….. photography made it possible for graphic arts to a company everyday life with pictures. It started to keep pace with printing. However in these early days it was outstripped, the decades after the invention of lithography, by photography. With photography, in the process of pictorial reproduction the hand was for the first time relieved of the principal artistic responsibilities which henceforth lay with the eye alone as it peered into the lens. since the eye perceives faster than the hand can draw, the process of pictorial reproduction was so enormously speeded up that it was able to keep pace with speech. The film operator, turning the handle in the studio, captures the images as rapidly as the actor speaks. Whilst in lithography illustrated magazine was present in essence, in photography it was the sound film………. These convergent endeavours led the foreseeable situation that Paul Valery described in the sentence:

“just as water, gas and electric power come to us from afar and enter and with almost no effort on our part, they’re serving our needs, so we shall be supplied be supplied with pictures or sound sequences that, at the touch of a button, almost a wave of the hand, arrive and likewise depart”

 page 5

Around 1900 technological reproduction had reached a standard which it is not merely be done to take the totality of traditional artworks as its province, imposing the most profound changes on the impact of such work; it is even gained a place for itself among artistic modes of procedure.

  As regards studying that standard, nothing is more revealing than how its twin manifestations – reproduction of the work of art and a new artist cinematography – redound upon art at its traditional form.

II

 Even the most perfect reproduction, one thing stands out: the here and now the work of art – it’s unique existence in the place where it is at the moment………..

Page 6

The whole province  of genuineness is beyond technological (and of course not only technological”) reproducibility reference 2 about the idea of genuine being recent concept..

 a technological reproduction is more autonomous, relative to the original, then one made by hand. Through photography, for instance, it is able to bring out aspects of the original that can be accessed only by the lens “adjustable and selecting its viewpoint arbitrarily” and not by the human eye, which is able to employ such techniques as enlargement or slow motion to capture images that are quite simply beyond natural  optics.

It can also place the copy of the original in situations beyond the reach of the original itself

It makes it possible for the original to come closer to the person  apprehending it is in, whether in the form of a photograph or in that of the gramophone record.

Even if the circumstances into which the product of the technological reproduction of the work of art may be introduced in no way in pair the continued existence of the work  otherwise, it’s here and now will in any case be devalued.

page 7

The genuineness of the thing is the  quintessence of everything about it since its creation that can be handed down, come its material duration to the historical witness that it bears.……  in  in the reproduction, where the former has been removed from human perception, it is  that the latter  also starts to wobble.

Reproductive technology, we might say in general terms, removes the thing reproduced from the realm of tradition. In making many copies of the reproduction, he substitutes for its unique incidence multiplicity of incidences. And in allowing the reproduction to come closer to whatever situation the person apprehending it is in, it actually rises what is reproduced.

Upheaval of tradition… Intimately bound up with mass movements of our day… Most powerful agent’s film…

Page 8

The social significance of film is unthinkable without this destructive, this cathartic side: namely, liquidation of the value of tradition in the cultural heritage. This phenomenon is it is most tangible in major historical films

Abel Gance …. 1927: Shakespeare…… Will make films all legends all mythologies and all myths all founders of religions indeed awaits their films resurrection,

III

Within major historical periods, along with changes in the overall mode of being of the human collective, there are also changes in the manner of its sense perception.

Page 9 …… Changing medium of perception occurring in our own day may be understood as a fading of aura, the social conditions of that fading can be demonstrated.

‘aura” of natural objects 

Unique manifestation of remoteness, however close it may be .

…….. gazing at a mountain range on the horizon…..

Current fading of aura depends upon social conditions ….. which which has to do with two circumstances both connected with the increasing significance of the masses in present-day life.

 ‘Getting closer to things’ in both spatial and human terms is every bit as passionate concern of today’s masses  (~reference 4 ) as a tendency to surmount the uniqueness of each circumstance by seeing it in reproduction **************

reference

Rear oneself closer to the masses in human terms may mean: having one’s functioning society removed from you We portraitist painting famous surgeon at breakfast not necessarily capturing sitters function in society more accurately than a 16th century painter portraying doctors is imposing presences e.g. Rembrandt

there is no denying that we see evidence every day of the need to apprehend objects in pictures, or rather in copies… Of pictures from very close to

REMOTENESS of image important see reference 5

page 10

REFERENCE NEWSPAPERS AND  illustrated papers

And there is no mistaking the difference between the reproduction, such as illustrated papers and weekly news roundups hold in readiness)  and the picture. Uniqueness in duration I was tightly intertwined in the latter as our transience in  reiterability in the former. Stripping the object of its sheath, shattering the Aura, bear witness to a kind of perception where “since the similarity in the world” is so highly developed that, through reproduction, it even mines similarity  from what only happens once………….. The orientation of reality toward the masses  and of the masses toward reality is a process of unbounded consequence not only for thought but also for the way we see things. 

IV

The oldest works of art,  Came into being in the service   of some ritual – magical at first, then religious.  now it is crucially important that this auric mode of being of the work of art never becomes completely separated from its ritual function Reference 5 

The “one-of-a-kind” value of the “genuine” work of art as its underpinnings in the ritual in which it had its original initial utility value.

Discussion about photography simultaneously arising with the dawn of socialism and theory of art for art’s sake rejecting the idea that art had any kind of social function To pay proper attention to this to understand what a work of art does when it can be reproduced by technology mean.

Page 12

 COST

The reason is that (these circumstances)  mean that: it’s being reproducible by technological means frees the work of art, for the first time in history, from its existence as a parasite upon ritual The reproduced work of art is to an ever-increasing extent the reproduction of a work of art designed for reproducibility (Reference seven..Which discusses cinematography and the fact

that the technological reproducability of films is rooted directly in the manner of their production  this not only facilitates the mass circulation films in the most direct way; it’s positively necessitates it.… COST

From a photographic plate, for instance, many prints can be made the question of the genuine print has no meaning. 

However, the instant the criterion of genuineness in our production failed, the entire social function of art underwent an upheaval. Rather than being underpinned by ritual, it came to be underpinned by a different practice: politics

V

CULT

Reception and appreciation of works of art two points of emphasis

Cultic value: presence more important than the fact that they are seen e.g. Alcon cave wall magic concealment hidden from spectators

As individual instances of artistic production become emancipated from the context of religious ritual, opportunities for displaying the product increase. Page 30

page 13

Display value

With the various methods of reproducing the work of art by technological means, this display ability increases so enormously that the quantitative shift between its two poles switches, as in primeval times, to become a qualitative change of nature. In primeval times, because  of the absolute weight placed on its cultic value, the work of art became primarily an instrument of magic that was only subsequently,… Acknowledged to be a work of art. Today, in the same way, because of the absolute weight placed upon his display value, the work of art is becoming an image with entirely new functions, …… The artistic function, stands out as one that may be subsequently be deemed incidental. Reference 10 (i.e.commodity)….Currently photography and film.

VI

Page 14

TIME    HISTORY

In photography, display value starts to drive cultic value back along the whole line.

Apart from portrait – human face

In the cult of recalling accident or dead loved ones the cultic value of the image find its last refuge.….One final glimpse of aura.

Atget

Deserted Parisian streets

1900 crime scene

deserted

exhibits in the trial that is history.

That is what constitutes their hidden political significance. They already call for a specific type of reception. Free-floating contemplation is no longer an appropriate reaction here. They unsettle the viewer: he feels obliged to find a specific way of approaching them.

At the same time illustrated journals used captions different titles of paintings in film this is worse because  the previous sequence of images also direct.

page 15

VII

page 17

influence of time. Discussion of film may be hieroglyphics not sacred but certainly supernatural  fairy like miraculous

VIII

Film camera mediating the performance of the screen actor to the audience. Editing close-ups.

lack of spontaneity to the audience Who are there

Audience are  asked to examine the report but with no personal contact with the performer

The audience empathises with the performer only by empathising with the camera. In this assumes the camera stands: it tests.

reference 11 the director in a film studio occupies precisely the same position as the test conductor in a vocational aptitude test

) So the cultic value cannot be judged from this position.

IX Performing

Film is more about the actor betraying yourself to a camera rather than portraying another person to the audience

discussion as a film actor being exiled from the stage and herself

page 19

The projector plays with the shadow of the actor in front of the audience was the actor must be content to act in front of the camera

so the aura around the actor and a character and therefore lost discusses then the distinction of time and place within film

X Film

He discusses the transportation of his reflection his mirror image to an audience

The audience of consumers who constitute the market

page 22

 film today may,,,, further revolutionary critique of show could social conditions, of property order

Benjamin states that

everyone has an opportunity to rise from passerby to film extra

page 23……………. the distinction between right and readership is thus in the process of losing its fundamental character. That distinction is becoming a functional one, assuming a different form from one case the next. The reader is constantly ready to become a writer. As an expert…….He gains access to authorship.

Literary authority is no longer grounded in specialist education …. It has become common  property.

Reference 14  technology used to be privileged particular any longer 

In Western Europe, capitalist excitation of film bars man’s modern man’s legitimate claim to be reproduced from being taken into consideration.

Given the circumstances, the film industry has every interest in arousing the participation of the masses by means of illusionary presentations and suggestive speculations.

page 24                                                        XI

 the illusory nature of film is a second-tier nature derives from editing. What this means is:

in the film studio the camera has penetrated so deeply into  reality the pure aspect of the latter,  in contaminated by the camera, emerges from a special procedure, namely being shot by a piece of photographic equipment adapted for the purpose and then pasted together with other shots of the same kind.

The camera every aspect of reality is here at its most artificial, and the sight of what is actually going on has become blue flower (of Romanticism) in the land of technology.

The feeling of immediacy??

Page 25

Magician and surgeon behave like  Painter and cameraman. The painter, while working, observed that the natural distance from the subject; the cameraman on the other hand, penetrates deep into the subject’s tissue.

Page 26

that is why the filmic portrayal of reality is  is of such  incomparably greater significance to people today, because it continues to provide the camera free aspect of reality that they are entitled to demand the work of art precisely by using the camera to penetrate that reality so thoroughly. 

XII

The fact that the work of art can now be reproduced by technological means alters the relationship of the Masses to art

the conventional is enjoyed without criticism, a truly new is criticised with the version. In the cinema, the critics and pleasure seeking stances of the audience coincide.…… Nowhere more than in the cinema to the individual reactions that together make up the mass reaction of the audience proof from the outset to be caused by their immediately imminent  massing.

Page 27 painting is not able to form the object of simultaneous reception by large  numbers of people, as architecture always has been, as the epic once was, as film is today. ……….

As a result, the same audience as reacts in a progressive fashion to a grotesque film will inevitably,……become a backward one.

X111 geography of film

page 29

try to decide which is more gripping the artistic worth or scientific usefulness of film.

Benjamin believes them originally to be different and diverging but now to be identical.

Benjamin  discusses the geography of buildings and cities and how they were imprisoning with one film came it made us free to explore them in adventurous journeys

 different techniques to slow motion and closer “bring out wholly new structural formations” slow motion gliding, floating, supernatural

Page 30

“Different above all is that the space permeated by human consciousness is replaced by one that is unconsciously permeated.” 

Only the camera can show us the optical unconscious, as it is only through psychoanalysis that we learn of the compulsive unconscious.

XIV

It is always being among our most important functions to generate demand for  Whose full satisfaction the time has not yet come reference 18

(Andre Breton says that the main value of a work of art is its capacity to reflect the future. Shortly before film turn the viewing of images into a collective experience in front of the stereoscopes…… Image viewing by the individual once again quite the same power as it informally attached to the priest contemplation of the divine image.

The history of every art form is critical periods in which that form striker effects that are able to find expression without effort only when technology has reached a new level – that is to say in a new art form.

page 31

Dadaism  was trying to generate the effects that people now look for in film, using the tools of painting “sometimes literature”

The commercial marketability of their works of art and far less to the Dadaists than their non-marketability as objects of contemplative information They sought to achieve that non-marketability, that an realisable quality, not least by fundamental disparaging their material That work had above all to meet one requirement: must provoke public irritate

Solicitor in the hands of the dad of the work of art, from being a site that seduced the eye or a sound persuaded the ear, became a bullet. It flew towards the viewer striking him down.

Compare review will the screen on which the film roles to the canvas that carries the painting. The latter invites the viewer to contemplate; he is able, in front of it, to give himself up to his chain of associations. Watching a film, he cannot do this. Scarcely had he set eyes on i which is already different. It cannot be pinned down

By virtue of its technical structure f film has taken the wraps off the shock effect   that    Dadaism kept shrouded, as it were in the moral sphere. T                                                     XV

the mass is a matrix from which currently  all customary responses to works of art are springing newborn

Page 53

quantity has now become quality: the very much greater masses of participants have produced a changed kind of participation

Many people  including Duhamel blame film has a low level of participation it arises in the masses That the masses are looking to distraction as art course of immersion on the view is par which is a platitude.

……

Architecture has always provided the prototype of a work of art that is received in a state of  distraction and by the collective.

 Page 35 art will attack… The most difficult and crucial…Fresh tasks of apperception where it is able to mobilise the masses. It is currently doing so in film

This  kind of reception in the state of distraction that to an increasing extent is becoming apparent in all fields of art and is symptomatic of profound changes in appreciation has its true practice instrument in film.

 Film pushes back cult value by not only persuading the audience to adopt an appraising stands but also by ensuring that this appraising stance in the cinema does not include attentiveness The audience is an examiner, but a  distracted  one.

Afterword

 page 38

Fascism leads logically to an aestheticiization of  political life . the violation of the masses, Regina leader cult it forces to their knees, corresponds the violation exercised by a film camera which fascism analysts in the service of producing cultic values

All efforts to   aestheticize politics culminate in one point. That one point is war. 

War, and war only, makes it possible to give mass movements on a colossal scale goal while retaining the traditional ownership structure. That is how the situation looks with political viewpoint From the viewpoint of technology it looks like this: only war makes it possible to mobilise all the technological resources of the present day while retaining the ownership structure. T