Walking and Mapping : Artists as Cartographers O’Rourke – Notes

The following notes were made using Dragon Dictate so some of the proper names and other unusual vocabulary may need editing!

Walking and mapping : artists as cartographers / Karen O’Rourke.

Cambridge, Massachusetts : The MIT Press, [2013].


Page XV111

Mapping denotes a process that takes place every time a map of any kind is created – a drawing scribbled on the back of an envelope, a sequence of places or events extra one’s memory

Page Xviii

Frederic Jameson – “mapping…… A pedagogical political culture which seeks to endow the individual with some new heightened sense of its place in the global system.

Chapter 2

Page 28 walking literally embodies the process by which “the live being recurrently loses and re-establishes equilibrium with his surroundings”

John Dewey, art as experience (New York: Perrigee books, 2005), 16 (original work published in 1934). In her song “walking falling” (1981) Laurie Anderson called attention to their relation.

Page 31 is challenged to reconstitute ordinary moments of his childhood, Christian Boulton ski produce photographs in which the artist mimed gestures he had made as a young child – – something, sliding down banister, throwing a p.


“We constitutions of gestures made by Christian Boltanski ski between 1948 and 1954” 1970.

Chapter 3

A map,no directions

Gianni Motti

2005,CERN, Geneva. Performance. Walk in the LHC (particle accelerator) 27 km, 5:50 hours

What are descended hundred metres into the circular tunnel of the large hadron Collider and walked to 27 km at an average speed of 5 km/h about six hours. The particles turn 11,000 times around the ring in one second.

Page 59

Abramowitz and Ulay’s great Wall walk was recounted in a film, an exhibition and book.

Abramovic titled her part of their joint project “boat emptying/stream entering”. Walking the great Wall taught her to cast off ballast and make for way for a new stream of energy to flow in.

To transmit her experience to the public, she invented an artform that she called “transitory objects.” The exhibition the lovers featured an installation called Green Dragon lying, a bed made of bronze with a crystal headset that is meant to give form to the energy stream artist encountered in China. By lying on the bed, the data could feel the energy generated. Abramowitz made a series of stone pillows called dragons, on which the viewers could rest their heads. Two black dragons from 1988 1989 allowed people to press their foreheads against a concave, polished surface of haematite or obsidian, while Green Dragon lying required visitors to lie on a copper plinth with their head cradled in green courts. The contact with each mineral is meant to evoke a different prime level of primary consciousness. The artist has said that these transitory objects “have to function in my place in order to trigger the experience of others. I settled everything in such a way that my presence is not needed.”

The words transitory connotes the femoral, fleeting, short lived, yes the objects were made from minerals that convey a sense of permanence. From a cosmological perspective, all matter changes over time, no matter how rigid it seems to us now. Walking the great Wall helped Abramowitz to understand, as she puts it, “the relationship between landscape and difference take states of mind, and the importance of the magnetic energy lines” both symbol and ritual play are important here. Symbolism makes things clearer, she says, while rituals “to mental job in another state of reality… In the West we are disconnected from the sense of time, the sense of ourselves, the sense of energy. It is it is like the head is not connected with the rest of the body.” Just as this work walk was for her away to reconnect them, so do visitors connect with these objects.

Page 112

Chapter 5 when walking becomes mapping

Sigmund Freud conceived in his interpretation of dreams (1899) as “an imaginary walk [spazierganphantasie]. At the beginning, the dark forest of authors (who do not see the trees), hopelessly lost on wrong tracks. Then a concealed pass through which I lead the reader my specimen dream with its peculiarities, details, in decisions, bad jokes and then suddenly the high ground and the view and the question: which wage you wish to go now?)” Reference Sigmund Freud, the complete letters to wilHELM FLEIESS (18 scratch that 1887 – 1904) Ed. Joseph M MaSSON (Cambridge: Bell Knapp press, 1985), 365 like Freud’s imaginary walk, a mental map is a symbolic diagram of how the components of a perceived intellectual environment fit together.

Orators in antiquity used the spatial organisation of places and objects to memorise long speeches. The main treatises on the arts of memory


Reference 36


The earliest known treatise Rhetorica ad Herennium, develops a theory of artificial memory that “includes backgrounds and images.” Background are “complete and conspicuous” scenes – “for example, a house, and intercolumnar space, a recess, and arch, or the like. An image is, as it were, a figure, Mark, or portrait of the object we wish to remember; for example if we wish to recall a horse, a lion, or an eagle, you must place is image in a definite background.” To be able to stimulate the memory, these “active images” (“imagines agentes”) the strike the imagination. Unusual, Obscene, odd, grotesque, or violent images are “strong and sharp and suitable for awakening recollection”: “if we set of images that are not many vague, but doing something; if we assign to them exceptional beauty or singular ugliness; if we dress some of them with crowns or purple cloaks, for example so that the likeness may be more distinct to us; all if we somehow disfigure them, as by introducing one stained with blood or soiled with mode or smeared with red paint, so that its form is more striking, or by assigning certain comic effect were images, for that, too, will ensure our remembering the more readily.” It is best to arrange the background seems illogical series to be able to summon up in the right order.[Cicero]’Rhetorica ad Herennium,trans.Harry caplan{Cambridge:Loeb classical library, 1954),III,xxii, 209

recommended that an orator build in his mind a spacious and to diversify edifice with an antechamber, living room, bedroom is, and salons where he can place figures and “active images” (to stimulate the memory, these imagines agentes needed to be striking – obscene, odd, grotesque, and so on) capable of evoking the arguments he wants to remember. As he delivers his speech, in his mind’s eye he walks to the different rooms to pick up the images he left there.

reference 37

Simonides of Ceos , a poet of the fifth century BCE, is said to have discovered this method. According to a story told by Cicero, Simonides patron, Scopas, we post him at a banquet devoting too much time to praising Castor and Pollux in a panegyric celebrating Scopas victory in a chariot race. Scopas paid him only half the fee they had agreed on, suggesting that he asked the twin gods for the remainder. Shortly afterward, Simona Dees was told that two young men wish to speak to him, and after he left the banquet hall, the roof fell in on crushed Scopas and his guests. During the excavation of the rubble, humanities was asked to identify those who’d been killed. He remembered all of the guests positions (loci) at the table and therefore was able to identify them for burial. After thanking custom politics are paying their half of the fee by saving his life, Simonides use this experience to develop the “memory theatre” or “memory palace” – an art of memory that was widely used in antiquity: “he inferred that persons desiring to train this faculty (memory) the select places and four mental images of the things they wish to remember and and store those images in these places, so that the order of the places will preserve the order of the thing, and the images of the things will denote things themselves, and we shall employ the places and the images respectively as a wax writing tablet and the letters written upon it.” Marcus Tullius Cicero,De Oratore,II,ixxxvi, 351 – 354, trans-. E. W. Sutton, completed with an introduction by H.Rackham, Loeb Classics edition (London: Heinmann, 1942). On the interpretation of these texts, see Frances Yates, the art of memory (London: Pimlico, 2001), 17 – 41 (original work published by Routledge and Kegan Paul in 1966). In addition to Cicero and the anonymous author of Ad Herennium, we were third author, Quintilian, the “clear directions about how to go through the rooms of the house.” Ibid. 38


Cognitive mapping refers to the process of structuring and storing spatial information. We visualise the physical environment in terms of shapes and relationships, this reducing cognitive load and enhancing learning.

Reference 38

Rob M. Kitchin, “Cognitive Maps: What Are They And Why Study Them?,” Journal of Environmental Psychology 14 (1994) One – 19.


This Expression Has Also Been Defined As “an Internal Awareness of a Familiar Environment” That Is Used by Humans and Animals for Orientation.

Reference 39

Tom Vanderbilt, “Cerebral Cities,” in ELSE/WHERE: MAPPING – New Cartographies of Networks and territories, Ed. Janet Abrams and Peter Hall (Minneapolis: University of Minneapolis Design Institute, 2006), 176 – 183.


In Mammals, This Process Takes Place in the Hypothalamus Area of the Brain.

Cognitive Maps Are Embodied Maps. As Maurice Merlai-Ponty asked , “is not to see to see from somewhere?”


Reference 40


He went on to suggest that it was not. Maurice Merlau-Ponty, phenomenology de la perception (Paris: Gallimard, 1945), Trans. Colin Smith,, Phenomenology Of Perception (London: Routledge, 1962, 2005), 77.


We must our environment as we move through it, aiming to reach our goal while avoiding it, as George Perec noted facetiously, bumping into things. “In dance,” writes dancer Melodie Gonzalez, “we work from mental scores or maps. I know the entire Dansk: spatially, dynamically, musically, physically, and even emotionally sometimes. The dance exists somewhere in my memory (mental and physical). The movement pathways within the body also mapped, in detail actually! But notation can’t record all of this information. It records only general information about the dance like spacing, dynamic, shapes of the body, and body parts. But the map within the body is created and recorded only by the dancer himself as he learns or creates the dance.


Reference 41


Melodie Gonzales, email message to the author, July 30, 2008.


The expression for Cognitive Map was first used by Edward C.Tolman in his 1948 article “cognitive maps in rats and men.” He postulated that “in the course of learning, something like a field map of the environment gets established in the rat’s brain…… Although we admit that the rat is bombarded by stimulating, we held that is nervous system is surprisingly selective as to which of these stimulate will let in at any given time “. He compare the rat’s brain to a map control room: “the stimulate, which are allowed in, are not connected by just simple one-to-one switches to the outgoing responses. Rather, the incoming impulses are usually worked over and elaborated in the central control room into a tentative, cognitive like map of the environment. And in this tentative map, indicating routes and pats and environmental relationships, which finally determines what responses, if any, the animal will finally release.”

Reference 42

  1. C. Tolman, “cognitive maps in rats and men, no. 4 (July 1948): hundred and 89 – 208. 194.

The notion has been much debated in recent years, in the image of the central control room has been called into question.

Kevin Lynch spent five years interviewing people in Los Angeles, Boston and Jersey City. Preceding empirically, he asked his respondents to draw maps showing the way from one place in the city to another. Examine these representations, he could better understand how people perceive and find their way in urban space. From these interviews, he distilled five elements that compose their mental maps. Since “people observe the city by moving through it, “potential parts of a key feature: “streets, walkways, transit lines, canals, railroads. ”

Reference 43


Lynch, the image of the city, 47.


Unlike paths, edges (“linear elements not used as paths”) our perceived boundaries between two places, such as walls, buildings and shorelines. As we zoom out, we become aware of districts – shopping areas, residential zones and historical city centres. Important focal points (such as busy intersections were several past lines meet, clarify things, as do prominent landmarks, which are easily identifiable objects that serve as reference points.

Reference 44


Districts were, in Lynch’s words “medium to large sections of the city… Recognisable is having some common identifying character.” Ibid., 47 to 48.

Mapping edges and Boundaries


Kevin Lynch Saw Boundaries and Edges As Important Components of people’s mental maps. “Edges,” he wrote,… “… Usually, but not always, the boundaries between two kinds of areas. They act as lateral references.”

Reference 45


Ibid., 47. Lynch was concerned with the people who occupy a certain space moment.

The term territoriality designates the ways that humans communicate ownership, however temporary, of particular spaces. For example, individual sitting in public places from place objects to mark the limits of the areas surrounding them that they regard as theirs. Others reclaim space by speaking loudly or wearing particular clothing, insignia, or perfumes. Invasion of personal space can cause the victim to feel discomfort, anger, or anxiety. The

The ontological concept of territoriality is rooted in the observation of similar and animal behaviours. In ethology, the term territory refers to an area that an animal consistently defends against members of its own species (and sometimes of the species).

Chapter 6 Lines Made by Walking


Urban Trails


Space does not exist; it is been produced from primary matter, nature, arguesHenri Lefebrve. It is the result of activity – political product and strategic spaces – that implies economics and technique but goes beyond them. There is not one social space but many.

Reference 1

Henri Le fevrbe, La production de l’espace, fourth Ed. (Paris:Anthropos, 2000), hundred and two – hundred and• three, the production of space, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (London: Basil Blackwell, 1991) (original work published in 1974).

My notes: references here difference is a list series of walks and Ariadne’s thread, Tom Thumb’s breadcrumbs trail Jackson Pollock’s paint tracery is films by Hans Namath passing of the Olympic flame described as

seemingly casual Mise en Scene abounds in allusions, Page 123


References all also early work Drawing lines with located media and mobile media overlaying a geographical space with an invisible layer of radio waves that connected today to space. Including GPS wireless Internet, Sensor networks, and automatic identification technologies that use radio signals to transmit information from one computer and device to another. The expression located media Serbs the title and locus 2003 workshop at R I X• see, and electronic and media electronic arts and media centre in Riga Latvia. Page 124


Page 125 related and overlapping terms using technology circles include augmented reality (end hunting reality with computer-generated sensory input), pervasive computing (computers embedded everywhere), ambient intelligence (electronic environments that responds the presence of people), and the Internet of things (the network interconnection of everyday objects).

The term located media is often used to refer to art that is ena technological bled by this infrastructure. Writing in 2005,Tuters and Varnellis assign it to an origin in the new media art community, work was a real world and set to the “the corporate lies, screen-based experience of net art.”

Reference 8

Tuters and Varnellis, “Beyond Locative Media.”

It Was Also a Way for Artists to Renew with the Tradition A Site-Specific Art That Left the Rarefied Air of Museum and Gallery To Investigate the World outside.

Others point to the new paradigm in computer science that was imagined by researchers at Xerox Hallo Alto research centre (P a RC) in the late 1980s – ubiquitous computing

reference nine Stephen Wilson, (scratch that “excerpt from proposal “potential contributions of the arts to research agendas in ubiquitous computing in gesture recognition”” http://user http://www.sfsu,edu/– S Wilson/papers/Wilson.UBI.gesture.HTML; and Galloway, (scratch that “irritations of everyday life: ubiquitous computing and the city, those quotes cultural studies 18, numbers 23 (2004): 394 to 408

As Mark Weiser’s groundbreaking article notes, “the most profound technologies those that disappear.. “They weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” He thought it was time to shift the focus from personal computers to computing that “takes into account the natural environment and allows the computers themselves to vanish into the background.”

Referenced 10

Mark Weiser, “the computer the 21st-century,” scientific American 265, number three (1991): 3-11

Weiser proposed it two virtual reality, which “is only a map, not a territory.” Instead of stimulating the world using the “enormous apparatus” virtual reality, he proposed to invisibly enhance the existing world, bringing the “virtuality” of computer readable tartar – all the different ways in which It can be altered, processed and analysed –… Into the physical world.”

Reference 11 i ibid, 4

In this way, he thought, “everybody’s virtuality will make individuals were well on the other end of their computer links. ”

Reference 12


High-tech potlatch Stephen Wilson’s Telepresent was among the first projects that let people as the artist together GPS data by walking it consisted of “magic box” that contained a small computer, a GPS receiver, and a digital camera that automatically sent images from wherever it was to a website, chronicling its travels as it goes, “showing whatever each recipient thinks is important or interesting – providing a small window on the world’s diversity of personal lives and cultural leashes”

Reference 17

Stephen Wilson the telepresent

The article is approached out that was tested by students in San Francisco. Each person given the telepresence had to decide what to do with it. There was a debate about how best to live with it

The telepresence raised questions about the nature of giftgiving and the responsibilities that people accept when they receive a gift. In his classic and article essay the gift the form and recent exchanges in archaic societies (1923), Marcel Mauss argued that this change of objects builds relationships between people. Giving an object creates an obligation to the receiver to accept the gift and to reciprocate . Both receiver and give there are entangled in a web of obligation. Mass wrote “if not yet repaid debases the man who accepted”

Reference 19

The gift

At the same time, it procure’s respect, standing and power forgive, who has shown himself to be generous.

The Telepresent proved itself to be somethimg of a ‘ cadea empoisonne’, in keeping with the ambulance of the word gift. In a short essay entitled “gift – gift” (1924), mouse notes that in German, the word gift means poison. The gift – giving and exchange practices that Mauss described work one self-interested and beneficial to the group. Analogous practices exist in modern societies, such as what is being called the gift economy of art or scientific research. When scientists read papers at conferences or publish articles in professional journals they could be said to give away the results of their research reference 20 the same is true of hackers who write code within free software, open source movement.

Reference 21

“Gift cultures are adaptations not to scarcity but to abundance. They rising populations that do not have significant material – scarcity problems with survival goods. We can observe gift cultures inaction among aboriginal cultures living in eco-zones with mild climates and abundant food. We can also observe in certain strata of our own society, especially in show business among the world the very wealthy. Abundance makes command relationships difficult to sustain and exchange relationships and almost pointless game. In gift cultures, social status is determined not by what you control but by what you give away. Thus the kwaiutl chieftains Potlatch party. Thus the millionaires elaborate and usually public acts of philanthropy. And thus the hackers long hours of effort to produce high quality open source code” Eric A Raymond, “homesteading the noo sphere,” HTTP://C ATB./– ES are/writings/homesteading/homesteading.

Mentioned artists

Jonas Mekas – Walden: diaries, notes and sketches (1969).

George Maciunas

Yoko Ono

Iain Sinclair

Shah Baudelaire flounder

Walter Benjamin

Heath bunting

Janet Cardiff, her long black hair

Marie Preston – playing – a dotted line on a map 2007

Chapter 8


Walking the network


Dynamic maps page 187


Other artists have sought to involve the public by building dynamic, self organising maps. In their project, the focus is on the map as a means of making visible things that had been invisible. During the spring and summer of 2001, visitors to the Centre Pompidou in Paris were invited to digitise an object that they were carrying and add its image to George Legrady’s database, pockets full of memories (2001 – 2007) (figure 8.5).

Figure 8.5

George Legrady, pockets full of memories, 2001 to 2007. Interactive installation. Aura exhibition, C3 cultural centre, Budapest, 2003. Visitors scan a personal object, provide information about it, and a self organising map algorithm positions it on the screen is similarly described objects. The object has to be small enough to fit on the scanner. People scan thousands of cellphones, keys, toys, watches, press hands and faces to the screen. They describe the object by assigning properties in response to a questionnaire, a mixture of close and open questions (“what is it, keywords, where did it come from? Close quotes). Then they position the object on the scale between old/new, soft/hard, natural versus synthetic, disposable/long use, personal/not personal, fashionable not fashion, useful/useless, functional/symbolic.

Pockets full of memories dealt with the dynamics of aggregating and visualising large amounts of information using a self organising map.

Reference 24

The SOM is a kind of artificial neural net the displays emergent properties when applied to large datasets.

Here the map is neither geographically nor visually organise: it charts relations between these objects according to their semantic value as each of them was defined by the person who contributed. The archive is presented as a two-dimensional grid made from 280 scanned objects projected onto the gallery wall.

Contributors could influence the way their objects were perceived to the choice of attributes. This is why, for example, a cellphone described as “old,” “personal” and “symbolic” might be placed next to a stuffed animal rather than another phone. The programme was set to process the data every minute scanning the map line by line, repositioning objects to reflect the changes in order as people added new objects. The database arrived its final state at the end of the exhibition.

Reference 25

The map can be consulted on the Internet. Clicking on an object allowed online viewers to see its properties and its attached stories and to compare it to its neighbours. Museum visitors and web surfers could add comments and stories to any object from anywhere in the world. George le’Grady, pockets full of memories, visual communication (2002).

Several years later, in an expanded in redesigned version of the installation, visitors could track object movement overtime or display the textual descriptions. C leGrady’s website at http://www.MA T. UCSB.Ed you/– G.le grady/GL web/projects/projects list.HTML.

The self organising map made these familiar objects behave strangely, like automats, inert objects come to life. Freud calls this the unheimlich (uncanny). Watching the cellular automata is similarly mesmerising.

Reference 26

George LeGrady’s project blink (2006 – 2007) demonstrate the process of self organisation is a vast matrix of eyes that open and close according to the neighbours behaviours. Each I statistically evaluating real-time what its immediate neighbours are doing and adjust its behaviour accordingly. The overall pattern oscillates between states of stability were all eyes imitate their neighbours and states of transitional disruption. The movements are dynamically calculated in real time using the Ising mathematical model, which describes phase transitions between ordered and disordered states. The latter takes place when the eyes observe their neighbours, shifting continually in the absence of a clear overall pattern to follow.

Page 189 another kind of dynamic map appropriate Google’s search results to create a world map of emotions. Maurice Benayoun’s still moving ( 2008) is an interactive sound sculpture that is coupled with a real-time video projection .

The 3 1/2 m sculpture takes the shape of a deflated globe that is deformed by the relief of the planet’s emotions. The primary experience comes when visitors interact with the object. By touching it all lying down on it, they can feel a dark libations of the world’s “emotional state” as is filtered by the Internet. The barely audible sound is composed of infra bases and translates information coming via search engines from the analysis of the news in 3200 cities. Projection onto the sculpture translates in words and colours this dialogue of bodies and global emotions.

It is the “14th act” of a corpus of works called mechanics of emotion (2005 – 2011) that Benayoun describes as “a desperate attempt to translate into something perceptible, accessible to the senses, the world filtered by its media”(figure 8.8). He sees today’s communication networks as an extensive virtual nervous system: “anywhere in the world one can feel what’s happening anywhere else in real-time as long as is connected to the net and is English-speaking.”

Reference 30 other works in the series include “frozen feelings” based on the world in motion maps and described at the artist as “deflated emotional distortions of the globe. The frozen feelings our 3-D snapshots of the world’s emotions. Digitally carved into different kinds of materials,” HTTP://www BEN a YOUN.com/PRO JE T. PHP? ID = 29.

For still moving the sum of all human emotions are synthesised in three keywords – ecstatic, nervous, anxious – that were chosen to evoke feelings, contacts, and caresses.

Reference 31

M Ben at you, email message to the author, September 2, 2010. Other examples include the “emotional vending machine” in the form of beverage vending machine. Consumers can choose three from a range of nine emotions (such as fear, joy, and ecstasy brackets updated in real-time. When the choices made, the machine browses the Internet and displays the results in the shape of words that represent the three motions and sounds that are composed by John Baptiste Barriere. Consumers can record their unique, real-time audiovisual emotional cocktails on a USB flash drive.

The search engine reduces them to something that is quantifiable and capable of automatic treatment. Using the statistical frequency of these words in online searches, the algorithm portrays the Earth (Google’s Earth) as a body where events in any one place have repercussions for the whole organism. BeN a YOUn notes that, using the criteria he has defined (those in use on the Internet), Africa showed hardly any response and therefore becomes nearly invisible, like and be dated limb that does not even trigger ghost pains. To rectify the balance, other kinds of interventions may be necessary.

Participatory Mapping


In the Projects Outlined above, the Information Gathered Modelled by the Artist Is Accessed by Viewers Interactively. Another Group of Mapping Project Integrates User Information into a Collectively Written Map

Reference 32 Hidden ecologies – Benton and Lanier

Unlike the route finding systems,

Reference 33

In most volatile map interfaces, users are free to save their own itineraries on their own computers, but to guarantee their privacy, they are not automatically added to the database. With the recent proliferation of invasive user profiling, inadvertent participation is on the rise.

Modifiable maps let online participants at their own information to the database, either directly or indirectly via submission process.

My notes

Deleuze postscript on societies of control

DeSoto the practice of everyday life

Guy debord the derive

John Dewey Art as experience New York: Perry G books 2005 (1934)

Jill Magid

Manor Rich

Yoko Ono still number for rape or chase

Ian Sinclair

Francis a Yates the art of memory London Pimlico 2001 (original work published by Routledge and Kegan Paul in 1966)

Paul Virillo













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rhiannon evans

I'm an MA student at Camberwell College of Art studying for MA Fine Art Digital. Thanks for looking

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